Anti-diarrheal activities of phytol along with its possible mechanism of action through in-vivo and in-silico models


Muhammad Torequl Islam, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Maria Saeed, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Md. Jahir Alam, Milon Mondal, Rajib Hossain, Mohammad S. Mubarak, Bahare Salehi, William N. Setzer, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis, Javad Sharifi-Rad

Abstract


Phytol (PHY), a chlorophyll-derived diterpenoid, exhibits numerous pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. This study evaluates the anti-diarrheal effect of phytol (PHY) along with its possible mechanism of action through in-vivo and in-silico models. The effect of PHY was investigated on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Swiss mice by using prazosin, propranolol, loperamide, and nifedipine as standards with or without PHY. PHY at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) and all other standards exhibit significant (p < 0.05) anti-diarrheal effect in mice. The effect was prominent in the loperamide and propranolol groups. PHY co-treated with prazosin and propranolol was found to increase in latent periods along with a significant reduction in diarrheal section during the observation period than other individual or combined groups. Furthermore, molecular docking studies also suggested that PHY showed better interactions with the α- and β-adrenergic receptors, especially with α-ADR1a and β-ADR1. In the former case, PHY showed interaction with hydroxyl group of Ser192 at a distance of 2.91Å, while in the latter it showed hydrogen bond interactions with Thr170 and Lys297 with a distance of 2.65 and 2.72Å, respectively. PHY exerted significant anti-diarrheal effect in Swiss mice, possibly through blocking α- and β-adrenergic receptors.

Keywords


Phytol; Diterpenoid; Diarrhea; Mus musculus; Molecular docking.

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